Freedom of the press

„Freedom of the press now belongs not just to those who own printing presses, but also to those who use cell phones, video cameras, blogging software and other technology to deliver news and views to the world.“

Ann Cooper, „The bigger Tent“ – cited from „Citizen Journalism, Agenda-Setting and the 2008 Presidential Elections“ by Kirsten A. Johnson

Human nature between genes and environment

“[…] There is a universal human nature (which is modulate also by particular conditions of each context) and the cognitive architecture of human beings is the resulted of interactions between genes and environment. […] Thus, it is assumed there is a relationship between phylogenies and ontogenetic development (the ontogenesis needs to be understood also as a product of evolution), considering the inseparability of biological, socio-cultural, cognitive emotional aspects that constitute this development”

Seidl-de-Moura, M.L., Donato Olive, A.; Vieira, M.L. – Human development in an evolutionary perspective. Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana/Bogota (Columbia)/Vol. 27(2)/pp. 252-262


„Technology is virtually never ‘inherently’ a panacea ensuring a utopian future and technology is virtually never ‘inherently’ a cancerous growth destroying all cultural traditions in its path. Nonetheless, with creativity, thoughtfulness and vigilance, communication technologies can often accentuate and recreate constructive cultural patterns, values and institutions.“ 

Charles Soukup, (2006) Computer-mediated communication as a virtual third place: building Oldenburg’s great good places on the world wide web. New Media & Society 2006 8: 421

… history is continually rewritten

„As Goethe contended, history is continually rewritten, not so much because of the discovery of new documentary evidence, but because the changing perspectives of historians lead to new selections from the data.“ 

Shibutani, T. (1955). Reference Groups as Perspectives. American Journals of Sociology, 60. pp. 522-529

… begin to understand your research

Once researchers begin to understand their questions and studies within a levels-of-analysis framework, it becomes easier to compare them to other research, see connections among different levels, and generally begin a much more systematic approach to a diverse area of the field.


Concepts in social theory

In my judgment the appropriate line of probing is with regard to the concept. Theory is of value in empirical science only to the extent to which it connects fruitfully with the empirical world. Concepts are the means, and the only means of establishing such connection, for it is the concept that points to the empirical instances about which a theoretical proposal is made. (p. 4)

The clarification of concepts does not come from piling up mountains of research findings. As just one illustration I would point to the hundreds of studies of attitudes and the thousands of items they have yielded; these thousands of items of finding have not contributed one iota of clarification to the concept of attitudes. (p. 5-6)

Herbert Blumer. „What is Wrong with Social Theory.“ American Sociological Review18 (1954): 3-10

Theoretical concepts and conceptions

Thus it seems natural to think of the concept of justice as distinct from the various conceptions of justice and as being specified by the role which these different sets of principles, these different conceptions, have in common. Those who hold different conceptions of justice can, then, still agree that institutions are just when no arbitrary distinctions are made between persons in the assigning of basic rights and duties and when the rules determine a proper balance between competing claims to the advantages of social life.

Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, as quoted in: Jensen, K. B. (2013). Definitive and Sensitizing Conceptualizations of Mediatization. Communication Theory, 23, 203–222

Simplify, highlight & organize

Models, by definition, are meant to simplify, highlight, suggest, and organize. But in doing so, they can exert a powerful guiding effect in determining how questions are posed and defining the relationships singled out for investigation. 

Reese, S.D. (2007) Journalism Research and the Hierarchy of Influences Model: A Global Perspective. University of Texas, USA